Some terms below borrowed from:
Language, Vol. 20, No. 4, Language Dissertation No. 38: Outline of Burmese Grammar (Oct. - Dec., 1944), 5-34., Burmese by Ear and
Romeo, Nicoletta. 2008. Aspect in Burmese : meaning and function. John Benjamins Publishing.
● Adding objects
● Adding time and other adverb
● Classifier/counter words
● Comparing Burmese with English, Indonesian, and Mandarin
Syllable = head + rhyme.
Head can be: (1) “initial consonant” or (2) “medial consonant”.
Rhyme can be:
(1) “attached vowel symbol” or
(2) “a consonant with ် [ătha - “killer” sign]” or
(3) “combination of an attached vowel symbol and a final consonant”.
Syllables combined to form words (ပ + ူ = ပူ) and sentences.
"A suffix is an element that is attached to the end of a word, like the English -ing in words like learning, thinking, etc. Most of the grammatical information in a Burmese sentence is carried by suffixes. Most suffixes are used with just one part of speech."
Suffix can be attached to sentences, phrases, verbs, nouns, and can be used to subordinates one sentence to another.
Notice that the same suffix can have multiple meaning. The popular suffix တော့ might mean (1) "at last", or (2) "however", or (3) "since", and many more.
Find basic suffixes here!
● စားတယ် = to eat. --> a verb
● စားတယ်။ = (someone) eats. --> a full sentence
● အစား(အစာ) (suffix အ + စား) = food. --> a noun
● စားတယ် = to eat (verb).
● (+) စားတယ်။ = (someone -- can be I, you, she, ...) eat (REALIS. Find more about Aspect versus Tenses here
● (-) မစားဘူး။ = (someone -- can be I, you, she, ...) don't eat.
● (?) စားလား။ = Do (someone, can be I, you, she, ...) eat?
● စားပြီ။ (စား + suffix ပြီ) = have eaten (REALIS).
● စားမယ်။ (စား + suffix မယ်) = will eat (IRREALIS).
● စားနေတယ်။ (စား + suffix နေ + suffix တယ်) = is/are eating (on progress).
● စားပါတယ်။ = (someone -- can be I, you, she, ...) eat. [ပါ adds politeness]
● မစားသေးဘူး။ = (1) haven't eaten yet. OR
(2) don't want to eat yet (we are still full).
● မစားတော့ဘူး။ = (1) not eating anymore (we are full after finished eating those food). OR
(2) not eating, (possible scenario: the host offers food, without even touch those food, we say that we don't eat because we are in hurry, gotta go).
● စား။ = Eat! [imperative sentence]
● စားပါ။ = Please eat. [polite imperative sentence]
● စားပါအုံး။ = Please eat. [sounds more friendly]
● စားပါရှင်။ = Please eat, (ရှင် = polite tag of female speaker).
● စားပါခင်ဗျား။ = Please eat, (ခင်ဗျား = polite tag of male speaker).
● မစားပါနဲ့။ = Please don't eat. [negative imperative sentence]
Here are more! Pay attention to the order of the words; though it is possible there are other variants to the word order.
Notice the "hotdog" comes first.
You may use it as a customer asking if hotdog is available to order.
● ဟော့ဒေါ့စားခဲ့တယ်။ = (someone) ate hotdog. [REALIS, past]
● ဟော့ဒေါ့စားတယ်။ = (someone) eat hotdog. [REALIS, past or present]
● ဘာစားလဲ။ = What does (someone) eat?
● ဘာစားမလဲ။ = What to eat?
● ဟော့ဒေါ့စား(သ)လား။ = (does someone) eat hotdog?
● ဟော့ဒေါ့စားတယ်နော်။ = (someone) eat hotdog, right? [asking the listener to agree with you]
● ဟော့ဒေါ့စားနေတယ်။ = (someone) is eating hotdog. [in progress]
● ဟော့ဒေါ့စားမယ်။ = (someone) will eat hotdog. [IRREALIS, future]
● ဟော့ဒေါ့စားမလား။ = Should (someone) eat hotdog?
● ဟော့ဒေါ့စားချင်တယ်။ = (someone) wants to eat hotdog.
● ဟော့ဒေါ့စားချင်လား။ = Does (someone) want to eat hotdog?
● ဟော့ဒေါ့စားပြီးပြီ။ = (someone) has finished eating hotdog.
● ဟော့ဒေါ့စားပြီးပြီလား။ = Has (someone) finished eating hotdog?
Adding time and other adverb.
● ဟော့ဒေါ့ဆိုရလား။ = Is hotdog ok?
● ဟော့ဒေါ့စားရမလား။ = Should (someone) eat hotdog?
● ဟော့ဒေါ့စားမလား။ = Is hotdog ok? or Wanna eat hotdog?
● ဟော့ဒေါ့ရတယ်။ = Hotdog is ok.
● ဟော့ဒေါ့စားလို့ရတယ်။ = Hotdog is ok.
Express like or dislike.
● မနက်ဖြန်ညစာဟော့ဒေါ့စားမယ်ရလား။ = Is hotdog for tomorrow dinner ok?
Classifier/counter words and asking people to do something for you.
● ဟော့ဒေါ့ကြိုက်တယ်။ = (someone) likes (to eat) hotdog.
● ဟော့ဒေါ့ကြိုက်သလား။ = Does (someone) like hotdog?
● ဟော့ဒေါ့သိပ်မကြိုက်ပါဘူး။ = (someone) doesn't very much like hotdog.
● ဟော့ဒေါ့မကြိုက်ပါဘူး။ = (someone) doesn't like hotdog.
Comparing Burmese with English, Indonesian, and Mandarin
Burmese has Round Number Rule (Okell's term). When the # ends in 0, the sequence of # and counter words (c.w.) are different:
1) For round number (number ends with 0, EXCEPTION 10):
[N] + (အ)c.w. + # + [V]
● ဟော့ဒေါ့အခုနှစ်ဆယ်ပေးပါ။ = Twenty hotdog, please.
2) For 10 and when the number not ends with 0:
[N] + # + c.w. + [V]
ဟော့ဒေါ့တစ်ခုပေးပါ။ = 1 hotdog, please.
● ဟော့ဒေါ့ဆယ်ခုပေးပါ။ = 10 hotdog, please.
Words in () means it is normally be omitted during casual conversation among friends.
 = literally translated to English.
● English : My name is Kyaw Htet.
● Burmese : ကျွန်နော့် နာမည်က ကျော်ထက် ပါ။ [my - name - suffix~subject - Kyaw Htet - suffix~polite-tag].
● Indonesian : Nama saya (adalah) Kyaw Htet. [name - I - (is) Kyaw Htet].
● Mandarin : 我的名字是 Kyaw Htet. [I - possessive - name - is Kyaw Htet].
While english sentence structure is normally Subject - Verb - Object, Burmese's normally Subject - Object - Verb, but may also be Object - Subject - Verb.
● English : I am eating fried noodle.
● Burmese : (ကျွန်နော်) ခေါက်ဆွဲကြော် စားနေတယ် [(I) - noodle - fried - eat - suffix~V-ing - suffix~verb].
● Indonesian : Saya sedang makan mie goreng. [I - ~V-ing - eat noodle - fried].
● Mandarin : 我在吃炒面. [I - ~V-ing - eat - fried - noodle].
Adj+N fried noodle in English; N+Adj ခေါက်ဆွဲကြော် in Burmese.
● English : I like to eat noodle.
● Burmese : (ကျွန်နော်) ခေါက်ဆွဲ ကြိုက်တယ်။ [(I) - noodle - like - suffix~verb].
● Indonesian : Saya suka (makan) mie. [I - like - (to eat) - noodle].
● Mandarin : 我喜欢吃面. [I - like - to eat - noodle].
In Burmese, Pronouns at the beginning of the sentence are often being left out.